Social Media and Senior Citizens

I recently came across this heart-warming news story about an elderly woman who found comfort, humour, and friendship to ease her suffering from cancer from connecting with others on Instagram. 

I have a soft spot in my heart for older people. I volunteered and later worked as a researcher and computer teacher for senior citizens while I was completing my undergrad. I loved listening to their stories and was fascinated by the way their resilience to huge life changes (the death of a spouse they’d been married to for 70 years, watching friends suffer from dementia, or losing the ability to walk without assistance). They took so much in stride and were able to view these traumatic events in the context of their whole life–so that they could smile about happy memories and provide insightful commentary on difficult subjects.

They brought this commentary to and resilience to learning about technology, too. Some of them loved it and jumped right in…and others loved to hate it, only wanting to learn for the sake of necessity. Social media had not quite exploded in the way it has now, but I do remember they were fascinated by Twitter and the concept of posting short messages. I think Twitter is a user-friendly interface that could be great for seniors in may ways that Facebook is not. I hope in the future we can find ways to harness social media’s power and make it accessible for older adults so they can share some of their wisdom with us.


Addressing the information literacy needs of senior citizens is a crucial role that public libraries must play. Older adults have increased leisure time that they can devote to social events, recreation, learning, community service, and physical activity. Unfortunately, as they age, many adults face increased social isolation, barriers to using technology, and limited access to the library and information. Within the next 20 years, 1 of every 4 or 5 Canadians will be over the age of 65 (CLA, 2002). In serving this demographic, libraries must remember that senior citizens are not a homogenous group and that “within the category of ‘older adults’ lie several generations with different life experiences and different sets of expectations” (CLA, 2002). While we cannot generalize social software use to all older adults, it is important to plan services and training for them. By designing social media training for older adults, public libraries can bridge the digital divide, promote lifelong learning, and improve the overall quality of life for this growing demographic of library users.


Hamilton Public Library: Social Media for Senior Citizens
Hamilton Public Library currently offers numerous programs that support technology skills for older adults. Many programs focus on basic computer skills such as Microsoft Word, searching the Internet, or using eReaders and downloading eBooks and audiobooks to personal devices. All Hamilton Public Library computer learning programs are entirely free and require registration. There are often waiting lists for computer training courses as they are so popular. Registration opens 1 week before classes run and must be done over the phone. One program, Social Media: Facebook 101 is offered at six different branches across the system. It is a one-time 90-minute class where patrons “learn the basics of Facebook including how to set up an account and privacy settings” (HPL, 2014).

HPL’s Book a Librarian program allows patrons over the age of 18 to book an appointment with a librarian for one hour to tackle any computer issue not covered in a computer help class. This service or program is offered at thirteen branches across the system. In many ways, HPL’s current Book a Librarian program is ideal for helping senior citizens use social media. The meeting is scheduled ahead of time, and the patron and librarian can interact in a quiet room, one-on-one. Most of the time, the program is used for e-book and personal device help, however the patron can bring in their own laptop computers, or the librarian could sit with them at a public computer or use a library laptop. At Hamilton Public Library, space is not an issue. The libraries have quiet areas reserved for Book a Librarian sessions.


Increasingly, libraries depend on the Internet and social software to reach out to their communities. In a 2013 survey of North American public libraries, 92% used social media websites to some degree (Singer & Agosto, 2013). HPL has an active social media presence. Its social media policy states that it aims to: “[e]xtend the reach of HPL’s online message, thereby improving relationships with library customers, potential customers and key influencers […] Provide an interactive, real-time platform using an informal/human voice to engage in dialog [and to] Provide a simple method for customers to provide feedback and seek assistance” (HPL, 2014). In order to serve all members of the community equally, HPL should help senior citizens use social software. While using social software can help more people learn about events and services offered by the library, let them actively engage in conversation with it, there is a danger of marginalizing those who do not use social media.


In order to ensure it reaches all members of the community, the library should offer training and courses to those less comfortable with technology. The same survey of libraries’ use of social media found that only 25% offered courses on social media (Singer & Agosta, 2013). 33% (like HPL) offer computer courses for seniors, but these may not specifically address social software.


Barriers to Access

Social media training specifically targeted at older adults is crucial because they face unique barriers. Senior citizens must overcome many barriers when learning to use computers, the Internet, and social media. A recent study showed only 53% of adults over 65 uses the Internet (Singer & Agosto, 2013). This number gets even lower when looking at seniors over 75–only 34% use the Internet (Singer & Agosto, 2013). However, the research shows that when seniors do learn to use the Internet it becomes an activity that they engage in daily (Singer & Agosta, 2013). A recent study by PEW Research Centre found that the fastest growing demographic for social media use is people over 65 (NPR, 2013).


Some reasons that senior citizens have reported not learning to use the Internet include a lack of perceived need or feeling pressured to learn new technologies rather than wanting to. They report not having a use for it or being too busy to spend time on a computer (Singer & Agosto, 2013). A lack of confidence with technologies means they also worry about doing something wrong and the consequences of making a mistake. They feel anxious about finding lost documents, files, and programs that seem to go missing (Singer & Agosta, 2013). Another worry is over privacy. Unfamiliar terminology and difficult to use interfaces can also reinforce feelings of alienation.

Once older adults start learning how to use a computer, they may face further barriers related to declining cognitive and physical abilities. They report having difficulty remembering what to do, understanding terminology, or suffer motor skill and vision loss that make using a computer or device challenging (Choi & DeNitto, 2013). Social media sites and many web browsers are not designed with usability in mind for older adults. They may experience difficulty navigating because of declining dexterity, vision, or memory. Older adults report usability problems caused by small fonts, difficulty of navigation, perceptual, motor skills, and cognitive demands (Choi & DeNitto, 2013). These difficulties can quickly lead to frustration, anxiety, and lower confidence, which can deter them from learning at all (Choi & DiNitto, 2013).

There is evidence that the digital divide for seniors is also related to demographic and socioeconomic traits. Choi and DeNitto found that education is one of the strongest indicators of Internet use (2013). For the oldest group of users, social support and financial resources were the biggest barriers to Internet use (Choi & DeNitto, 2013).

At Hamilton Public Library, they have found the main barrier for accessing help with social media is being unable to visit the library to keep a Book a Librarian appointment. For this reason, the library is considering an outreach program to support computer skill development in older adults.


Benefits of Social Media
Though poor health can be a barrier to accessing the Internet and social media, Choi and DiNitto also point out that health problems may motivate senior citizens to seek health information online (2013). Senior citizens depend most heavily on their friends and family for health information and to support their health needs. Social media can help them stay on top of their medical needs by keeping them in contact with loved ones. Computer and Internet use has been linked to better overall physical health (Choi & DeNitto, 2013).


Despite the possible health and social benefits of using the Internet to access health information, seniors sometimes do not feel motivated to learn because they see no use for the Internet. Social software interaction may actually motivate older adults to continue learning how to navigate the Internet. It would increase for the perceived usefulness and need for the Internet. Seniors rely on friends and family for computer help and support—social media use could help seniors troubleshoot computer problems and support continued learning (Choi & DiNitto, 2013).


Social software can have mental health and social benefits as well.  This period life can be difficult: older adults may face the loss of a spouse, moving out of their own home, or a transition to assisted living. Deteriorating physical health and ability may lead to isolation. Associate Professor of Psychology T.J. McCallum, Ph.D. found that seniors who engaged technology have higher self-esteem and greater social interaction compared to seniors not involved with technology (Freeman, 2012). Continued learning leads to a sense of purpose and better brain health. Researchers have found that older caregivers benefitted from online social interaction intervention to relieve social isolation and depressive symptoms (Choi & DiNitto, 2013). Online communication has been shown to be responsible for expanding networks of close relationships, leading to face-to-face interactions for older adults (Choi & DiNitto, 2013). Older adult computer users are also more likely to be employed, be members of community organizations, and do volunteer work (Choi & DiNitto, 2013). Based on their research, Choi & DiNitto suggest that there is a synergistic relationship between social capital and adoption of Internet technology. If you can teach an isolated individual about the Internet, it can strengthen their ties to relatives, support groups, and activities (2013).


Finally, I think it is important to note that there are benefits for society to having more older adults using social media. To hear their stories, opinions, and wisdom on current affairs and to create opportunities for intergenerational connections is one great benefit of social media training. Public libraries should make it possible for older adults to actively engage with social media and create places for their voices to be heard.


One crucial element of HPL’s social media training will be providing an outreach service to those who cannot make it to the library. Programs that are most successful happen inside senior living communities or nursing homes so that seniors do not have to worry about leaving their own home (Freeman, 2012). One of the benefits of new technology like Smartphones and tablets is that education is more portable and affordable. Libraries no longer need entire computer labs to offer instruction on social media. This means they can more easily leave the library to offer training.


HPL should follow the guidelines set out by the Canadian Library Association for Library and Information Services for Older Adults. It recommends that libraries “[r]each out to older adults in the community who are unable to get to the library” (CLA, 2002). They should promote this service through local media, seniors’ organizations and centres, public health agencies, and other community agencies working with older people (CLA, 2002). They should carefully plan to meet the needs of different older adults in the community by acquiring current data about the older population and by involving older adults in the planning process (CLA, 2002).


Programs that are specifically targeted to older adults can be helpful, as seniors will not have to worry about “keeping up” (Choi & DeNitto, 2013). HPL can ensure that these programs are tailored to seniors’ information needs and focus on connecting them to their friends and family as they are most interested in services like Skype and email that help them stay connected to the people they are close to (Freeman, 2012). They are also interested in connecting with social services and health information (Singer & Agosta, 2013). Hamilton Public Library can help seniors overcome their fear of using social media by addressing privacy concerns and providing tips and guidance for internet safety. They should emphasize that making mistakes is normal, but they won’t do anything to break the computer or make it blow up!

Research has proven some best practices for delivering computer instruction to older adults. HPL must begin by insuring the space in which it is offering lessons is safe, comfortable, accessible, and inviting for older people (Singer & Agosta, 2013). Small class sizes (no more than six) or ideally one-on-one training makes learning more successful (Singer & Agosta, 2013). Providing guidelines and tip sheets before and after instruction will aid with memory and retention—enabling learners to practice at home or in the library (Singer & Agosta, 2013). The training should incorporate hand-on aspects (doing rather than passively learning). Library staff should focus individualized attention on learners and emphasize their early successes to build self-confidence. Considering the anxieties and social pressures older adults feel when learning new technologies, it is of the upmost importance to foster a sense of community, support, and patience.


Because the digital divide for older adults is still very real, Hamilton Public Library should focus its efforts on the people who are disadvantaged when learning about computers. Those with low social capital: older age groups, racial/ethnic minority adults, older adults with low education and low income, and those living alone have the most to gain from social media. Though Hamilton Public Library already offers a Facebook course and its Book a Librarian program, it can better meet the needs of senior citizens by creating an outreach program that lets them learn in their own spaces.






























Works Cited

Block, M. & Cornish, A. (2013, November 25). Why are seniors the fastest growing            demographic on social media? All Things Considered. NPR. Transcript.        Retrieved from


Choi, N. & DiNotto, D. (2013). Internet use among older adults: association with health          needs, psychological capital, and social capital. Journal of Medical Internet            Research. 15(5): e97.  Retrieved from


CLA (2002). Canadian Guidelines on Library and Information Services for Older Adults.      Retrieved from         M/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3029.


Freeman, Kate. (November 30, 2012). Social Savvy Seniors Have Higher Self-Esteem.   Mashable. Retrieved from   self-esteem/.


Hamilton Public Library. (2014). Social Media Policy. Hamilton Public Library. Retrieved      from


Singer, D., & Agosto, D. (2013, Nov). Reaching senior patrons in the digitized           library. Public Libraries, 52, 38-42. Retrieved from  









ECRR 2.0: Using Apps and E-Books in Early Literacy Programs

Little eLit

Here are our slides from ECRR 2.0: Using Apps and E-Books in Early Literacy Programs. There were also a number of ALSC blog posts about our session:

E-Books and Apps in Storytime
Early literacy and apps
Using Apps and eBooks in Early Literacy Programming

A large list of LittleeLit-vetted ECRR-supportive apps is on it’s way! Stay tuned!

Parents and librarians want to know how to safely integrate apps and e-books into their lives without feeling guilty. Join Cen Campbell and Saroj Ghoting as they share why apps are useful and successful and should be incorporated into early literacy programming; how to model healthy media behavior; and what is the current research on the effects of digital media on children.

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ECRR App List

Little eLit

As promised, here is a crowd-sourced list of librarian-tested apps that can be used to support early learning practices and parent-child engagement. Many thanks to the LittleeLit Think Tank for sharing their favourites!


Moo, Baa, La La La! – Sandra Boynton (Loud Crow) [and others by Boynton]
Go Away, Big Green Monster! (Night & Day Studios)
The Three Little Pigs (Nosy Crow)
Trucks – Byron Barton (Oceanhouse Media) [and others by Barton]
Goodnight Moon (Loud Crow)
Endless Reader (Originator)
Bird’s Words (Sesame Street –this one is great for locating environmental text–like a treasure hunt for words in the real world!)
Collins Big Cat: It Was a Cold, Dark Night (Harper Collins Publishers) [free] –the cool thing about this one is that you can read the story, then use the Story Creator to make your own stories using props and backgrounds from the original (plus a few extras). Caregivers…

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Evernote for Storytimes at Helen Plum Library, by Michelle Kilty

I good way of using apps to increase parent/caregiver participation at storytime.

Little eLit

As we began our storytime season last fall, we were looking for a way to increase caregiver participation in our storytimes. We have a variety of storytimes at our library – baby storytime, toddler storytimes, preschool storytimes, and family drop-in storytime, all of which include caregivers. Some of our caregivers are new to attending storytime; others were just more uncomfortable.

HPLEvernote4We have multiple staff members running storytimes, and leaders were sharing rhymes, finger plays, and songs differently. Some used handouts; others taught the rhymes to caregivers while in storytime. We wanted to find a universal way to share rhymes, finger plays, and songs – especially since we do communal storytime planning in our department around the same weekly theme. I decided to try and find a way to project words to rhymes, finger plays, and songs onto a large screen that is behind us during storytime. The idea came from…

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Social Software and First Nations Communities in Canada

A sign in a  window reads: Public internet access site Canada

A public internet access site on a first nations reserve in Canada.

Breezy access to broadband Internet connections and wireless networks gives the majority of Canadians the opportunity to access social software. Too often we take for granted this ability to reach out to friends and family for advice, social interaction, and information. Rural and remote First Nations communities face many struggles and inequalities—information poverty and isolation is just one serious threat to their health and happiness. In the future, social software may offer solutions to harness the sharing power of social software to support cultural resilience, combat isolation, and offer information and advice for living a healthy life. However, there are barriers to using social media and real problems with past social software initiatives that have been targeted at First Nations.

Social software could be used to foster cultural resilience. Past projects supported by government funding include: video podcasts by elders of traditional storytelling and songs (, n.d.), an Oji-Cree dictionary, and elder visitations through videoconferencing. Efforts to preserve languages like the website Indigenous Tweets ( which counts and archives tweets in different languages can help minority language speakers find each other. First Nations social media users are already celebrating and practicing their culture by posting photographs and stories, and accessing art and music (Molyneaux, 2012). Targeted efforts to capture their stories, art, and perspectives could play a large role in preserving and sharing First Nations language traditions, and spirituality.

Social media also has the potential to combat the isolation that comes with living in small, remote settlements. It offers social capital-building activities that are especially important during harsh winters where travel is difficult. Social media can support active communication and continuous learning year round. A crucial need that could be filled by social software is better access to health information and counseling. Nationwide, one of the top 5 reasons that people go online is to access health information (Rempell, 2013). However many First Nations people lack the infrastructure, digital literacy, or health literacy skills required to get health help online. In a 2013 survey, the overwhelming majority of respondents did not feel confident to locate reliable information online (Rempel, 2013). Instead, they relied on friends and TeleHealth for trustworthy advice. With greater training in foundational digital literacy skills, first nations communities will be empowered to live healthier lives.

Another barrier to accessing social software is a lack of infrastructure. Higher-than-average costs because of low population density and a lack of population to recover the costs of physical infrastructure development means that companies have had little incentive to extend their reach to rural First Nations communities (Fisel & Clemens, 2012). A map of ). “Connectivity for Aboriginal and Northern Communities in Canada” (Government of Canada, 2012) reveals many communities with slow dial-up internet, or no connectivity at all.

Current social software platforms for first nations leave much to be desired. was launched in 2000 as part of the Kuh-ke-nah Network (K-Net)(Fiser & Clement, 2012). An earlier study of MyKnet recorded 30 000 registered users with 25 000 active accounts, mostly in Northern Ontario (Budka, et al., 2009). This number is significant portion because the total population here is 45 000 (Budka, et al., 2009). A recent survey found that Facebook has since replaced as the main social media network (Budka, 2012)). Reported reasons for this include: outdated and limited technical features, no capacity for IM or chat, people sending hate messages and swearing in private message boxes, and the lack of content control that allows for obscene content posted on homepages (Budka, 2012). However, is not a dead site by any means and is still used for creating and maintaining online homepages.

Social media attempts targeted at First Nations have failed to stand the test of time and never take root in their communities. Internet initiatives could be made more sustainable by creating equal and open partnerships between funders and communities. Local input for policies, project design, implementation, and community needs are necessary (O’Donnell et al., 2010). Advocacy and lobbying for funding beyond projects end dates is also a crucial aspect of building more effective social networks for First Nations.

While further research must be conducted to understand cultural attitudes towards social media use amongst First Nations, I foresee that social software can make a positive impact. Our society’s increasing reliance on social media for information, communication, entertainment and artistic expression threatens to deepen the digital divide suffered by First Nations communities. There is a need for self-sufficient and well-designed social software to serve the unique cultural, language, and information needs of First Nations people.


Fiser, A., & Clement, A. (2012). “A Historical Account of the Kuh-Ke-Nah Network: Broadband Deployment in a Rural Canadian Aboriginal Context”. Connecting Canadians: Investigations in community informatics. Edmonton: AU Press. Retrieved from

Budka, P., Bell, B.I., Fiser, A. (2009). How Northern Ontario’s First Nation Communities Made Themselves At Home on the World Wide Web. Journal of Community Informatics 5(2). Retrieved from http://ci ____. (2012).

Report on the and Facebook Online Survey, April December 2011. Retrieved from Government of Canada. (2012).

Connectivity for Aboriginal and Northern Communities in Canada. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Retrieved from

Indigenous Tweets. (2013) Retrieved from Kisiku’k Wklusuwaqnmuow. (n.d.) Retrieved from

Molyneaux, H., O’Donnell, S., Kakekaspan, C., Walmark, B., Budka, P., Gibson, K. (2012). Community Resilience and Social Media: Remote and Rural First Nations Communities, Social Isolation and Cultural Preservation. Paper for the 2012 International Rural Network Forum, Whyalla and Upper Spencer Gulf, Australia, 24-28 September. Retrieved from

What we know, what we do: libraries supporting identity building for homeless youth

Public libraries have an ethical and professional obligation to advocate for the
information rights of the homeless through the elimination of barriers, promoting equal
access to information for the poor, educate the community about the unique situations of
homeless library users, and creating a welcoming and safe library atmosphere (ALA, Policy
61). Despite being an especially vulnerable portion of the poor, homeless youth are a
difficult demographic to reach. Currently, in Canada there are approximately 65 000
homeless between the ages of 12 and 29 (Solomon, 2013). The main barrier preventing this
vulnerable population from accessing library services is a lack of self-esteem and
confidence that prevents them from actively seeking support. Often, youth cope with their
difficult situations by withdrawing into deviant informal networks of information,
distrusting information professionals, and by denying their problems. In order to succeed
in rehabilitating their lives, youth need to build an identity, self-esteem and self-worth—a
process that is hindered and interrupted by a transient lifestyle.

Libraries and researchers tend to focus on the physical needs of the homeless, rather than fulfilling their higher-level needs such as identity formation. It is important to recognize that the higher-level needs of
youth are critical when developing and offering information services. In order to support
homeless youth non-judgmental professionals must work to build trusting relationships
with these patrons, promote the library as a source of escapism and safe refuge, and design
information activities for teens to seek, share, and create information in ways that are
beneficial and rewarding. Information retrieval activities are a solution for building
identities and self-worth in homeless youth, an essential part of motivating youth to seek support and pursue goals towards rehabilitation.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people cannot focus on higher-level needs until their basic physiological needs are met (1943). However, while libraries offer a wealth of resources that could benefit the physical wellbeing of homeless youth, first reaching this population is the most difficult part of providing support. Teens are reluctant to seek out information because they are in denial of their problems, focused on fulfilling basic needs, afraid of not being taken seriously, or worried about confidentiality. They have a tendency to withdraw from their social networks and to not actively seek support for their problems (Miriam et al., 2010). These potential users lack the motivation and self-efficacy to cope with their overwhelming situations. Higher-level needs such as those described by Maslow (belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization) co-exist along with basic physical needs (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2012). Higher-level needs are still of concern for people that are worried about staying warm and finding food (Snow & Anderson, 1987).

Furthermore, physiological and psychological needs are equally important and co-dependent. When emotional needs are not fulfilled, homeless youth reported using unproductive coping strategies including fighting, drugs, and smoking (Miriam et al., 2010).

Homeless youth need help and support in fulfilling higher-level needs as it is an essential factor in enabling them to pursue other information needs and support. Homeless youth are robbed of many identity-building experiences during a crucial time of intellectual development. Being transient and highly mobile, they are less likely to complete high school, integrate into school communities, participate in enrichmentactivities, explore personal interests, cultivate talents, and benefit from stable social relationships (Solomon, 2013). They have difficulty securing regular support services such as counseling. They often have difficulty maintaining relationships with loved ones while they are homeless. This identity crisis is compounded by negative societal attitudes towards homelessness. In their study of the identity formation in the homeless, Snow and Anderson researched how the homeless cope with the stigma of homelessness and generate an identity beyond the stereotypical assumptions held by society (1987). They found identity-related concerns were present, even when physical needs were not being met. Through talk and storytelling, the homeless men carved out meaning and personal significance despite being marginalized by society. Snow and Anderson conclude that a sense of meaning and self-worth are critical for survival (1987). For adolescence, self-efficacy and confidence is needed to take on the enormous and overwhelming tasks such as finding permanent housing, starting job training, persisting with academic programs, building positive relationships, seeking counseling, beating addiction, or accessing information services. Libraries can utilize the unique information behaviours of the digital-age generation to help homeless youth fulfill their higher-level needs.

Homeless woman with two dogs.

Libraries have an obligation to serve homeless youth. This paper suggests some strategies for building self-esteem and identity to help teens find the strength to access the community resources that can help.

Information sources have long been tied to identity formation and social interaction (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2005). Television, newspapers, and books provide escapism and keep people up to date on current events, giving them a sense of connection to their former lives and a basis for conversations (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2005). At the same, homeless people express a distrust of mainstream media as they rarely see reflections of their own opinions, perceptions, and experiences. Traditional mainstream media has not met the information needs of the homeless in affirming identity or building self-confidence.

However, Radical Change theory (Dresang & Koh, 2009) marks a fundamental shift in the way that young people retrieve information. The children of the digital age regularly engage with information communication technology and information retrieval for them is an identity-building activity. Information retrieval is no longer passive, but rather an interactive activity (Dresang & Koh, 2009). Hypertext empowers end-users and grants control over learning giving choices and creating personalized paths for information retrieval (Dresang & Koh, 2009). The feeling of being in control and having choice in the information-retrieval process is important for homeless youth. When getting support from professionals, youth are discouraged from seeking help within rigid structures with too many rules (Miriam et al., 2013). They also expressed a desire to be listened to, discuss issues, and be allowed to shape their own opinions (Miriam et al., 2013). Digital-age information behaviours support desire by inviting comments and feedback from users. Being invited to express opinions and to contribute to their learning process promotes Maslow’s higher-level needs of respect, problem solving, and acceptance of facts (1943). Libraries should emphasize this type of information gathering when teaching research skills, and use it as a design principle when creating resources for youth.

The library is a safe haven from overcrowded shelters, negative peer pressures, and the dangers of the street. It also provides access to materials that are entertaining, offering relaxation and escapism. This is especially important for those who are anti social, suffering from anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, or overcoming addiction (Gehner & Freeman, 2005). For the homeless, reading and learning is a constructive way to spend free time. It is an activity that builds self-worth and self-esteem.

In order to draw homeless youth, libraries must reach out to homeless youth by visiting social service providers and shelters to emphasize it as a welcoming place for entertainment and sanctuary. Libraries must remember that homeless youth may not have experience with, or positive views of libraries. Negative attitudes from information professionals towards the homeless emerge repeatedly in the literature as the major deterrent for youth for accessing library services (Miriam et al, 2005). All staff and volunteers in libraries should undergo sensitivity training and education about the unique circumstances of homeless individuals (Gehner & Freeman, 2005). It is of the upmost importance that youth feel welcome and important in the library at all times.

Homeless youth may feel they are limited to a stigmatized, “homeless identity”, especially if they are visibly homeless (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2012). For the digital age generation, information retrieval offers a way to explore and experiment with portraying flexible and multiple identities (Dresang & Koh, 2009). They can seek information without fear of judgment, escape into online gaming, express themselves without censorship, and interact with new online communities. Just as words and stories were an important part of character formation for homeless men studied by Snow and Anderson (1987), self- expression through blogs, wikis and social media plays an important role for youth. Youth engage in social discourse and construct “identities-in-action” through the use of avatars,

IM nicknames, managing personal blogs, and the creation of photos and videos (Dresange & Koh, 2009). For homeless youth, these could be acts of therapeutic catharsis and validating self-documentation that support identity-building and build confidence.

Identity formation is also supported by the social elements of information activities. Users use information technology to encounter different perspectives, collaborate with others to solve problems, circulate and share information, and maintain existing friendships (Dresang & Koh, 2009). Because homelessness can be socially isolating, connecting youth to these opportunities for social engagement will be highly beneficial.

The homeless often have difficulty maintaining contact with old friends and previous work colleagues (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2012). They were most likely to seek information from family members, friends or agency workers. However, many homeless experience a disruption or complete loss of these informal supports when they are transient. Homeless youth need affirmation and emotional support (Miriam et al., 2013). Therefore, information services that create, supplement and strengthen positive social ties are important. Potentially, information activities can strengthen the cohesion and effectiveness within the homeless youth community. Currently, the perspectives and information retrieval preferences of homeless youth are understudied and not well understood (Solomon, 2013). The inner life of the homeless is often neglected by researchers (Snow & Anderson, 1987). By helping youth engage with web 2.0 platforms, they can create, share, and collaborate with each other. Living life on the streets and surviving each day is an “episode of peak performance”; recognizing the special knowledge and accomplishment these youth possess can restore confidence and self-worth (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2012). Additionally, when seeking information, youth preferred communicating with individuals that had personally experienced homelessness (Miriam et al., 2010). Homeless youth can feel appreciated by sharing their valuable expertise with other homeless youth and service providers while creating valuable resources. Libraries should offer training and programming that encourages the creation of digital media by and about their experiences. Furthermore, these disadvantaged groups rely heavily on informal networks in term of social capital for material and emotional support (Muggleton & Ruthven, 2012). Social networking allows marginalized youth to expand their peer support network and gather relevant information and share in experiences.

Homeless youth have been disconnected from their previous lifestyle and identity. They have lost trust in people that were important to them, and in society as a whole. Connectedness, belonging, participation, and integration into communities is vital to their success in society. Libraries have a responsibility to provide information services to support this population and support their higher-level as well as basic needs. Identity is best understood as, “we are what we know and what we do” (Dresang & Koh, 2009). The personal expression and social interaction offered by web 2.0 information activities fulfill many of Maslow’s higher-level needs such as creativity, problem-solving, tolerance, self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, and respect by others (Maslow, 1943).

Programming and information services can engage youth in practical identity-building activities and focus on teaching the skills needed for engaging with information in thdigital age: critical thinking, information literacy, multiple literacies, collaboration and tolerance (Dresang & Koh, 2009).

Information services have traditionally focuses on fulfilling basic information needs of the homeless while giving little consideration to their inner well-being. By shifting attention to the higher-level needs through compassionate, non-judgmental service, and making self-expression and social interaction through digital media a priority, libraries can empower homeless youth to overcome their adversities by gaining self-identity and confidence.

Reference List

Collins, L., Howard, F., & Miraflor, A. (2009). Addressing the needs of the homeless: a San

Jose library partnership approach. The Reference Librarian 50(1), 109-116.

Retrieved from

10.1080/027638708025 6472.

Dresang, E. T., & Koh, K. (2009). Radical Change Theory, Youth Information Behavior, and

School Libraries. Library Trends, 58(1), 26-50.

Gehner, J., & Freeman, K. (2005). Just a little understanding: a social-service provider’s

perspective on homeless library users. Hunger, Homelessness & Poverty Task Force:

Social Responsibilities Round Table of the American Library Association. Retrieved


Hersberger, Julie. (2005). The homeless and information needs and services. Reference &

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Social Benefits of the Internet

My response to an eerily insightful article by Dr. Vannevar Bush published in 1945.

The Golden Retriever

One of the reasons I want to be a librarian is the idea of helping people. I know that libraries have an incredible ability to grant even the most isolated individuals essential information, community, recreation, and art. By providing equal access to a wide variety of information, libraries enrich lives and open realms of possibilities for its users.

I view the internet as a global, all-encompassing library. Users can come, spend hours, go wherever they want, create, debate, be active or passive, seek out information to their heart’s content, and talk to anybody, anywhere in the world. I romantize, I know. But the social benefits of the internet, especially for marginalized individuals are enormous with the proper education and access.

In his beautifully insightful Atlantic article, Dr. Vannevar Bush looked forward to the potential of humanity in wake of electronic systems that could store and categorize the sum of human…

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